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Platinum Priority – Collaborative Review – Bladder Cancer
Editorial by XXX on pp. x–y of this issue

E-cigarettes and Urologic Health: A Collaborative Review of Toxicology, Epidemiology, and Potential Risks

By: Liam Bourkea , Linda Bauldb, Christopher Bullenc, Marcus Cumberbatchd, Edward Giovannuccie, Farhad Islamif, Hayden McRobbieg, Debra T. Silvermanh and James W.F. Cattod

European Urology, January 2017

Published online: 19 January 2017

Keywords: Electronic cigarettes, Smoking cessation, Toxicology, Urologic health

Abstract Full Text Full Text PDF (355 KB)

Abstract

Context

Use of electronic cigarettes (ECs) is on the rise in most high-income countries. Smoking conventional cigarettes is a known risk factor for urologic malignancy incidence, progression, and mortality, as well as for other urologic health indicators. The potential impact of EC use on urologic health is therefore of clinical interest to the urology community.

Objective

To review the available data on current EC use, including potential benefits in urologic patients, potential issues linked to toxicology of EC constituents, and how this might translate into urologic health risks.

Evidence acquisition

A Medline search was carried out in August 2016 for studies reporting urologic health outcomes and EC use. Snowballing techniques were also used to identify relevant studies from recent systematic reviews. A narrative synthesis of data around EC health outcomes, toxicology, and potential use in smoking cessation and health policy was carried out.

Evidence synthesis

We found no studies to date that have been specifically designed to prospectively assess urologic health risks, even in an observational setting. Generating such data would be an important contribution to the debate on the role of ECs in public health and clinical practice. There is evidence from a recent Cochrane review of RCTs that ECs can support smoking cessation. There are emerging data indicating that potentially harmful components of ECs such as tobacco-specific nitrosamines, polyaromatic hydrocarbons, and heavy metals could be linked to possible urologic health risks.

Conclusions

ECs might be a useful tool to encourage cessation of conventional cigarette smoking. However, data collection around the specific impact of ECs on urologic health is needed to clarify the possible patient benefits, outcomes, and adverse events.

Patient summary

While electronic cigarettes might help some people to stop smoking, their overall impact on urologic health is not clear.

Take Home Message

While electronic cigarettes might help some people to stop smoking, it is not clear if they may be bad for urologic health.

Keywords: Electronic cigarettes, Smoking cessation, Toxicology, Urologic health.

Footnotes

a Faculty of Health and Wellbeing, Sheffield Hallam University, Sheffield, UK

b Institute for Social Marketing and UK Centre for Tobacco and Alcohol Studies, University of Stirling, Stirling, UK

c National Institute for Health Innovation, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand

d Academic Urology Unit, Department of Oncology and Metabolism, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK

e Department of Epidemiology, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA

f Surveillance and Health Services Research, American Cancer Society, Atlanta, GA, USA

g Wolfson Institute of Preventative Medicine and UK Centre for Tobacco and Alcohol Studies, Queen Mary University of London, London, UK

h Occupational and Environmental Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD, USA

Corresponding author. Faculty of Health and Wellbeing, Sheffield Hallam University, Collegiate Crescent, Sheffield S10 2BP, UK. Tel. +44 114 2255396.

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